If you are looking for good electronics programs and instruction located in India, here is a list of resources to get you started at the end of this article. First, though a couple of key questions.
- Be prepared to answer why you would like to attend electronics school. What is your objective for learning electronics.
- Have you done any work with electronics before in India. Do you know what a potential job would be like in India working in electronics?
When shopping for a ham radio antenna analyzer or arial analyzer as some call it, it is goodo to consider the AIM 4170 Antenna Analyzer. Before buying it though, please review some of the details about the AIM 4170 antenna analyzer. Those are listed here below. Antenna analyzers can be very useful when building ham radio antennas. I know that often times I would construct an antenna by doing the measurements correct and cutting the feedline to the right length only to get high SWR on my antenna. A good quality arial analyzer can help you get a low SWR and that can make your time on ham radio more enjoyable. You can purchase antenna analyzers from a variety of places and you can spend little or lots of money on them. I haven’t seen too many antenna analyzers though that cost less than several hundred dollars. That may be a bit discouraging but it’s a great tool to have. I have purchased my equipment before from Ham Radio Outlet. They have several locations around the country and have very good service. The AIM 4170C Antenna / Lab RF Analyzer has many features from a small box. Here are some of them:
- SWR referenced to any impedance
- Resistance and reactance at the cable input
- Resistance and reactance at the antenna terminals
- Resistance and reactance of discrete components
- Return loss
- Reflection coefficient
- Cable length
- Cable impedance
- Cable loss
- Distance to fault (open or short)
- Smith chart display
- Quartz crystal parameters
I think some of the valuable ones for beginners are calculating the cable length and the cable loss. SWR is key but sometimes we don’t realize how much is lost on cable resistance. A Smith chart display can be very handy as well. (For more information see http://www.arraysolutions.com/Products/AIM4170B.htm) You can also read the reviews here http://www.eham.net/reviews/detail/6258.
This is a review for the Palstar ZM30 Antenna Analyzer. When you buy something from Palstar, you are buying a product from a good company. Palstar’s customer service is very good and their quality is good as well. Many people I know speak highly of Palstar and their products. The Palstar ZM30 Antenna Analyzer is no exception.
Here are all the technical specifications on the Palstar ZM30 (http://www.palstar.com/ZM-30_specifications.pdf) . The main reason to get an antenna analyzer is to help tune your antennas. So in my mind, you want that piece of equipment to have a good working range of signals to work with and good attachment points on the analyzer so that you can hook up your antenna easily.
One thing I like about this model is that you can plug it in the wall or run it off of batteries. That’s a very nice feature. Usually signal generators will run down on power quite a bit. It takes a good amount of energy to gererate signals for reading. One analyzer I built chews through batteries.
The other thing I like about this antenna analyzer is that it is not priced out of reach. That is always a plus. The controls are easily managed in the front. They give you almost an IPOD type control knob for frequency adjustments. All in all, a very good product.
Subcarrier FM transmissions can be picked up by creating a circuit that identifies them. The circuit would not be the easiest to put together quickly. However, it is a doable project. I would start with some simplier FM receivers first to learn how they work and then progress onto this one.
If you ever wanted to build a very small FM transmitter, then this is the circuit for you. With only 16 components, this is a very compact FM transmitter. I like small circuits because they give you a chance to build something quickly. Sometimes if you pick a project too large, then you can’t get it done.
If you would like to pick up the parts before building, here is a list of the parts for this small FM transmitter.
Two 100K resistors
1 10k resistor
1 470 ohm resistor
2 470pF capacitors
2 4.7µF, 16V, electrolytic capacitors
2 4.7pF capacitors
1 4-40pF trimmer cap (this is optional, but if you are putting in an order to Digikey for electronic parts, just go ahead and get this as well.)
2 2N2222, NPN transistors
1 Electret Microphone
1 9 Volt, Alkaline battery, or you can use a 9 volt power source.
I like to create these projects on a breadboard first. If you can, purchase a good breadboard kit. Here are the full instructions to build it:
Here is a small two transistor FM transmitter that can transmit up to 1/4 of a mile. That is a good distance and should not cause many problems interfering with other radio communications. There are a wide variety of applications for a small device like this. You can build one to listen to nature sounds. You can put this in a waterproof housing and put a 9 volt battery in it. However, after a while, that is going to drain your battery down. For a listening device that kicks on when sound hits a certain threshold, you need a small sensor that can pick that up. Almost like a photo sensor.
Here are the list of parts:
R1,R4,R6 = 10K C1,C2 = 0.1uF Q1,Q2 = 2N3904
R2 = 1M C3 = 0.01uF L1 = 0.1uH
R3 = 100K C4 = 4-40pF
R5 = 100 ohm C5 = 4.7pF
R7 = 1K
I would recommend buying your parts at Digikey or Mouser. Both are good parts suppliers. It all maters how low of a price you can get.
(source – http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/circ/fmt1.htm)
This 3 Volt Miniature fm transmitter can only transmit for short distances, but it is small. Having a small discrete FM transmitter can be useful. If you don’t want to consume too much power or have your transmitter too visible, then the smaller the better.
I prefer working on small projects like this one because when you create small electronic projects, then you can understand how the more complex ones work. Here is the parts list:
1 – 4.7k resistor
1 330 ohm resistor
1 0.001uf capacitor
1 10-40 pf variable cap
and then you will also need an electret mike, some magnetic wire for the antenna, and then a 3 volt battery. (source – http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/circ/fmt2.htm). I would buy the magnetic wire at Radio Shack but order most of the capacitors from Digikey or Mouser. Variable capacitors are handy to have as well.
This sensitive FM transmitter is also a fairly strong transmitter for its size. If you are wanting to pick up low sounds, converstations, or wildlife sounds, then you may enjoy building this FM transmitter. You can build this device or you can also purchase small fm listening devices like this for not that much money.
For parts, you will need:
2 10k reisistors
1 100k resistor
1 4.7k resistor
1 330 ohm resistor
2 0.1uf capacitors
1 0.001uf capacitor
1 10-40pf capacitor
1 4.7 pf capacitor
2 2N3904 transistors
some magnetic wire and something small like a pencil for your coil
(source – http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/circ/fmt3.htm)
This small FM transmitter circuit uses a 9 volt battery for its power source.
With 16 parts, this is actually one of the larger number of parts for FM transmitters listed on my site. However, that’s still a relatively few number of components, so it is not that difficult to build. (source – http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/circ/fmt4.html ). You can also buy an FM transmitter if you would like. If you don’t want to buy one, then I suggest going through the list of parts and sourcing them from a place like DigiKey or Mouser electronics.
You ever have one of those times when you are sitting in the living room trying to hear music coming from the kitchen or vice versa but you can’t hear it. Then you go to turn up the music in the kitchen and it becomes too loud for those in the kitchen but it sounds good in the living room.
What you need to build is an FM transmitter to transmit that music throughout your house. Sound difficult? It might be the first time to build it, but with these instructions and a few parts, you will be well on your way.
(source – http://electronics-diy.com/tx200.php)